Alfred Hitchcock Collectors’ Guide: Murder! and Mary (1930/1931)

  • In 1956, the Master famously remade his own 1934 thriller The Man Who Knew Too Much
  • But 26 years before that, he directed two very different versions of this murder mystery
  • Both films were shot at the same time and place but with English and German casts
  • The English-language version had a second American edit, with a much pacier ending
  • Source novel author also penned controversial Hitchcock costume drama Under Capricorn
  • All have been heavily bootlegged for years, but here’s a round-up of all quality official releases

Note: this is one of 100-odd Hitchcock articles coming over the next few months. Any dead links are to those not yet published. Subscribe to the email list to be notified when new ones appear.

Murder! (1930, dir. Alfred Hitchcock) US window card

US window card


Contents


Murder! (1930)

Writing in 1930, the critic and documentary maker John Grierson CBE (1898–1972) infamously proclaimed:

“Hitchcock is the best director, the slickest craftsman, the sharpest observer and finest master of detail in all England. There is no doubt about this. He has these qualities so abundantly that in their sum they give him a style which is his and no one else’s. A Hitchcock film is a Hitchcock film—and never a bad one—and this, if you will believe me, is an achievement of character where so many hands, grubby and otherwise, contribute to the final result of a film. Yet for all these virtues, Hitchcock is no more than the world’s best director of unimportant pictures.”

Ouch. He was, of course, making the point that in his opinion, Hitch’s prodigious talent should be turned towards making films based on more important subjects than mere escapist entertainment like this. He then went on to review both Murder! and Rich and Strange in great and thoughtful detail. Still sounds like sour grapes to me…

Edward Chapman (shadow) and Phyllis Konstam in (Murder! (1930, dir. Alfred Hitchcock)

Edward Chapman (shadow) and Phyllis Konstam in the highly expressionistic opening scenes of Murder!

As with so many of his films, Murder! and its German-language sister, Mary (1931), are best known these days for having been directed by our Alfred. Just as interesting though, is the fact they’re multiple-language version (MLV) films , shot simultaneously on the same sets but with different casts. Both are densely plotted mystery-thriller whodunits with numerous typically Hitchcockian twists. Mary is 20 minutes shorter than Murder! so much more streamlined. A third version, presumably French, was initially proposed but didn’t transpire. This was actually Hitch’s second experience with MLVs, as the previous film he worked on, Elstree Calling, was completed in nine different languages.

Murder!/Mary’s source text is 1928 British novel Enter Sir John, also serialised the same year in US publication Nash’s Magazine. Both were graced with gorgeous illustrations by Sydney Seymour-Lucas. It was written by Clemence Dane, who was by all accounts an unwittingly hilarious conversationalist, and Helen Simpson, who was also a liberal politician before her untimely early death. To date, Simpson has garnered a handful of film credits in total including two more with Hitch, detailed below. Despite various authors repeating the claim the pair’s novel was adapted for the stage, according to film historian Charles Barr in English Hitchcock (1999), there’s no record of that ever happening. The rumour seems to have come about due to Dane also being a successful playwright and the fact that as the book is set within the world of the theatre, the films naturally come across as if they were play adaptations. Much like the oft-repeated falsities of The Mountain Eagle being renamed in the US, or Nita Naldi’s supposed appearance in The Pleasure Garden, the Murder!-play misapprehension has been perpetuated by numerous lazy authors and non-existent fact checking. For all that, Enter Sir John did at least spawn a rare 1932 sequel titled, somewhat predictably, Re-enter Sir John.

On the subject of associated books, I strongly recommend Hitchcock Lost and Found: The Forgotten Films (2015, Kindle) also by Barr, with Alain Kerzoncuf. It has a substantial chapter on both MLVs, with an in-depth analysis of their production and many fascinating differences. The other most important print resource is the aforementioned English Hitchcock.

Following the, ahem, execution of its titular subject matter, Murder! threatens to devolve into a similar, albeit highly stylised, vein as later classic courtroom dramas such as 12 Angry Men (1957), before moving firmly into whodunit territory. There are some keenly observed performances from the usual array of Hitch regulars, both credited and uncredited. In particular, look out for former Blackmailer Donald Calthrop, who puts in a brief but nimble turn as both a policeman and a damsel in distress! Without wanting to spoil the outcome, it’s previously often been claimed the killer commits their crime to protect the dreadful secret that they’re actually gay. This is incorrectly seen as a subtext instead of the real reason stated in both the book and film, which happens to be something of which I myself am thoroughly guilty. How times have changed.

A question: there are various timepieces seen during the course of the film, and all display 1:30, either am or pm. I’m well aware of Hitch’s general predilection for clocks, watches, etc. but does anyone know the reason for this particular time?

Distinguished British actor Herbert Marshall played Sir John himself and during a lengthy transatlantic career went on to star in Hitch’s second American film, Foreign Correspondent. He also starred in several Hitch-related radio dramas: The Lodger, two of The 39 Steps, Rebecca and, by strange coincidence, the July 20, 1953 Lux Radio Theater adaptation of Daphne du Maurier’s 1952 short story The Birds – a full 10 years before the release of Hitch’s screen version! Well worth a read is Scott O’Brien’s excellent Herbert Marshall: A Biography (2018).


Home video releases

Norah Baring in Murder! (1930, dir. Alfred Hitchcock) UK Studiocanal DVD

UK Studiocanal DVD; Norah Baring in Murder! She interviewed Hitch in 1935 for her regular column in Film Pictorial.

Kino Murder! trailer

All official releases of Murder! feature the original British theatrical version (102min, 98min PAL), as opposed to the American, which is shorter by around 10 minutes. Several of them also include an extra “alternative ending”, which is actually the abbreviated last 10 minutes of the American version. It’s of interest as it includes two brief specially-shot scenes not present (or necessary) in the British version. They were added to cover gaps in continuity caused by the editing. Confused? Of course not, but this simple concept is clearly beyond the grasp of any number of previous Hitch commentators. The English-language version’s numerous bootlegs mostly contain a poor quality copy of the American print. Murder! has seen these official releases so far:

All DVDs have the same solid transfer, though the US has a slight edge in detail over all the others. However, note there are two differing soundtracks available. One was left unmolested, while at several points on the other the strange decision was taken to replace foley effects or even add new ones altogether. All American releases have original audio and are by far the preferred choice, while Euro DVDs have the altered version. Both points also apply to Rich and Strange, part of the same US DVD set. At least both remain in their original mono; SuspicionTo Catch a ThiefVertigo, North by Northwest and Psycho have all had new sound effects added and been remixed in gimmicky 5.1 surround sound.

As for Kino’s region A/1 BD and DVD, they have both MLVs along with a handful of relevant extras, the meatiest of which is a decent but desert-dry audio commentary by film critic Nick Pinkerton. Kino’s press release promised the inclusion of a documentary, Hitchcock: The Early Years (2004, 52:22), but it’s disappointingly absent. A French production only covering the Studiocanal-owned films, it was originally titled Alfred Hitchcock: Films de Jeunesse (1925-1934) and can be found on the French and UK DVDs, the latter with optional English subs.

Another disappointment is that like all of its previous DVDs, Murder! has again been transferred in the wrong aspect ratio of 1.33:1, exposing the whole frame instead of cropping the left edge to leave the correct 1.19:1. This results in frequently exposed equipment and set edges; also here. The left of the image would have originally been masked by the optical soundtrack; this was planned for by Hitch and his cinematographer Jack E. Cox. The latter worked on almost 100 British films from 1922–1952, including many universally regarded classics and a whopping 12 Hitchcocks. No slouch then, so it’s annoying to see their expertly composed framing thrown off centre to the right throughout. Historically, countless films have been compromised on home video in similar fashion by people ignorant of the basics of their job. But this is still happening even with more recent formats and various other Hitchcocks are similarly afflicted, such as Dial M for Murder, The Birds, Marnie, Torn Curtain and Topaz. Mind you, in those cases it’s even worse. Oh well, at least Murder! isn’t as egregious an aspect ratio blunder as those on Kino’s botched simultaneous release of Blackmail.

Herbert Marshall (centre, with cane) and Edward Chapman (with binoculars) in Murder! (1930, dir. Alfred Hitchcock)

Ooh, I can hardly bear to look! Herbert Marshall (centre, with cane) and Edward Chapman (with binoculars) reel at the film’s shocking conclusion.


Mary (1931)

Illustrierter Film-Kurier German magazine No. 1554 with Mary (1931, dir. Alfred Hitchcock) cover

Illustrierter Film-Kurier German magazine

It’s easiest to get both MLVs on the aforementioned US Murder! BD, though note Mary is only an SD upscale, so not true HD. It is the only English-friendly option available at present though. She’s also on the R2/PAL German DVD mentioned above, which goes under the film’s German title: Mord – Sir John greift ein! (Murder – Sir John Intervenes!). Unfortunately, in this case Mary only has original German audio, while Murder!/Mord has the option of German subtitles and its original 1930 German dub. Mary can also be found on an R2/PAL French DVD of Hitch’s Jamaica Inn but do beware though: both its films have forced French subtitles, so they’re not burned into the image but still can’t be turned off. There’s another French disc which came with a Hitchcock DVD-magazine series but is a real rarity. Obviously, it too only has French subs.

Though Hitch’s first eight talkies prior to The Man Who Knew Too Much are mostly available in good condition, they would all benefit hugely from a full restoration. This is very unlikely to happen for any of them anytime soon, but even a decent remastering would go a long way. At least the potential addition of subtitles to all of them would help with discerning their many instances of unintelligible dialogue. Alongside various other early copies, the BFI archive holds the original nitrate negative to Murder! I sincerely hope both films will one day receive the loving care they so richly deserve.

The Multiple-Language Version Film: A Curious Moment in Cinema History

Multiple-Language Version Film Collectors’ Guide


More Helen Simpson on home video

Australian-born Helen Simpson packed a lot into her years: actor, poet, novelist and politician to name just a few pursuits, before dying tragically young at the age of 42. Though most of her novels and copious other writings are long out of print, the screen adaptations arising from some of them are thankfully all easily available. She provided additional dialogue for Sabotage, her only screenwriting credit, and wrote Under Capricorn (1937), which became a successful play. That, of course, in turn became a less-than successful film directed by Hitch in 1949, starring Ingrid Bergman and Joseph Cotten. Finally, a 1982 TV miniseries was made in Australia, the country of its setting.

Saraband for Dead Lovers (1948)

Saraband for Dead Lovers aka La prisionera del castillo (1948) Argentinian poster by Osvaldo Venturi

Argentinian poster by Osvaldo Venturi

Based on a true story, Saraband for Dead Lovers was the first colour feature from the famous Ealing Studios. It tells the tragic story of Sophie Dorothea, a young girl forced into a loveless marriage with King George I of England, a cruel and ruthless monarch. Sophie Dorothea’s bleak existence is transformed when the manipulative Countess von Platen, an influential figure in the royal court, adopts a handsome young protegee, Count Philip Konigsmark. However, in a world where the monarch wields the power, Sophie Dorothea and Konigsmark’s forbidden passion places them in danger, for if their betrayal is discovered, they must face the wrath of the king. – UK DVD

Simpson’s 1935 novel Saraband for Dead Lovers was adapted for the eponymous 1948 Ealing Studios film, their first in colour, starring Stewart Granger and Joan Greenwood. A handsome tie-in book was also produced the same year, subtitled The Film and Its Production. All the cast are utterly magnificent in their portrayal of events based on a real-life German royal scandal and if you’re in the mood for a fast-moving costume drama with more oomph and action than Capricorn, this should tick your box nicely. It’s only seen official release on a pair of handsome looking discs in the UK and Germany so far, the latter with an optional original dub:

  • UK: Optimum DVD (2007)
  • Germany: Alive DVD (2019)

Bootlegs: US (Nostalgia Family), Italy (Sinister Film), Spain (Suevia, Regia).

Clip


Under Capricorn (1949)

Cold husband. Broken wife. Gallant lover. A triangle set to explode… and reveal a strange crime.

Dim the house lights and dig in for a dark tale of love, frustration, violence and vengeance as only the great Alfred Hitchcock could tell it. The setting is Australia in the 1830s. Sam Flusky (Joseph Cotten) has served out his sentence for killing his wife’s brother and has now become a very successful businessman. But his wife, Lady Henrietta (Ingrid Bergman), is strangely dispirited and degenerating deeper into alcoholism — until an old friend (Michael Wilding) arrives Down Under and begins to pay her the most ardent attention. The tension builds between the two men until it erupts into attempted murder, and the story twists sharply to expose a painful secret.

Bergman, Cotten, Wilding, Hitchcock… four brilliant stars that make this film a superb piece of entertainment. — US Sterling VHS (1993)

My favourite Hitchcock: Under Capricorn – Joe Walsh, The Guardian

Under Capricorn aka Les amants du Capricorne and Slavin van haar hart (1949, dir. Alfred Hitchcock) Belgian poster

Belgian poster

Under Capricorn (1937) – Helen Simpson

Ingrid Bergman and Joseph Cotten star in Under Capricorn, a lush Technicolor melodrama directed by Alfred Hitchcock, the Master of Suspense. Cotten plays Sam Flusky, a native Briton banished to Australia for murder. Bergman is his wife, Henrietta, the disturbed sister of the man Flusky was convicted of killing. When a new governor arrives, he brings with him his cousin, Adare (Michael Wilding), an old friend of Henrietta’s, who sets out to help her conquer her demons and return her life to normal. But there are complications: Is Henrietta going insane, or is someone trying to drive her mad? Is she merely an alcoholic, or is someone trying to poison her? No one but Hitchcock could handle these questions with such surefire tension, and the performances by Bergman, Cotten and the entire cast are excellent. Described by film critic David Thomson as “a rich account of emotional self-sacrifice,” Under Capricorn is that rare film which captures the humanity of its characters while keeping the audience on the edge of their seats; in other words, it was directed by Alfred Hitchcock.

Sweden’s greatest export since Garbo: Ingrid Bergman (1915–1982)

Under Capricorn marked Hitchcock’s final collaboration with Ingrid Bergman, the remarkable Swedish actress who was one of the great movie stars of the forties. Born in Stockholm in 1915, Bergman studied as a teenager at the Royal Dramatic Theatre and made her film debut at nineteen in Munkbrogreven (The Count of the Old Monk’s Bridge). Over the next few years, she became Sweden’s biggest star, and after her brilliant performance in Intermezzo (1936), producer David Selznick decided to bring her to America for an English language remake entitled Intermezzo: A Love Story (1939). Billed as “Sweden’s greatest export since Garbo,” she was an instant hit, starring in such classics as Dr. Jekyll and Mr Hyde (1941), opposite Spencer Tracy, and Casablanca, opposite Humphrey Bogart. This latter film, perhaps the most beloved of all time, established her as the world’s foremost female movie star and led to starring roles in For Whom the Bell Tolls (1943), Gaslight and her first film with Hitchcock, Spellbound.

A spine tingling thriller in the classic Hitchcock mold, Spellbound features Bergman as a psychiatrist whose new colleague (played by Gregory Peck) turns out to be an amnesiac who may have murdered the man he’s pretending to be. Aside from Bergman’s exquisite performance, the element that most distinguished the Tim was a stunning dream sequence designed by artist Salvador Deli. The following year, Hitchcock, Bergman and Cary Grant collaborated on what is arguably one of the greatest films of all time: Notorious. A brilliant psychological drama about a U.S. agent (Grant) who convinces the woman he loves (Bergman) to marry a Nazi spy (Claude Rains), the film offered Bergman her finest rale since Casablanca, a tragic figure torn between love and duty, and her performance is remarkable.

The Style and Meaning of the Long Take in Rope and Under Capricorn – Jang Mihwa, 2018 | Peter Bogdanovich (use subs)

Under Capricorn (1949, dir. Alfred Hitchcock) US 1963 re-release poster

This lurid US 1963 re-release poster came in the wake of Hitch’s huge success with Psycho and is clearly designed to draw comparison with ad campaigns for the new wave of low budget but highly profitable horrors ushered in by the likes of Roger Corman and William Castle. I’m sure it must lured in a few sorely disappointed punters!

She made only three more films in the forties: Arch of Triumph, Joan of Arc (both 1948) and Under Capricorn. Shortly after that final collaboration with Hitchcock, she left her dentist husband and her young daughter and ran off with Italian director Roberto Rossellini, shattering the wholesome image that studio publicity had worked so hard to build. (They married the following year, and among their offspring is Isabella Rossellini, the star of Blue Velvet [1986].) She spent the next several years in Italy with her husband, starring in his films, and was roundly criticized in America; on the floor of the U.S. Senate she was referred to as ‘Hollywood’s apostle of degradation” and “a free-love cultist.”

But in 1956 she made a remarkable comeback, winning a Best Actress Academy Award for her performance in her first English language film in seven years, Anastasia. Forgiven by the American public, her career boomed again, and she continued to work through the early eighties. Among her best films from the final three decades of her career were Murder on the Orient Express (which earned her another Oscar for Best Supporting Actress in 1974 [for 14 minutes of screen time!]) and her countryman Ingmar Bergman’s Autumn Sonata far which the Academy nominated her as Best Actress in 1978.

By the time of her death from cancer in 1982, her scandal was all but forgotten, and she was recognized for what she was, one of the cinema’s greatest actresses. In her best films we see a rare force, a combination of strength and vulnerability that Hitchcock in particular brought out. Such enduring qualities mark her as the rarest of rarities in Hollywood’s galaxy, a true star. — Jeff Schwager, US Image LD/VHS/DVD

Contemplating Under CapricornKen Mogg, 2021

This isn’t one of Hitch’s most acclaimed films, mainly due to it seldom meeting most fan’s expectations of what a Hitchcock film should be. In truth, it’s an exceptionally well-made but somewhat overlong period costume drama and, if approached in the right frame of mind, it more than satisfies. Nonetheless, it’s still a Hitchcock but even so, official releases are surprisingly few. Here are all of them:

Original transfers

Under Capricorn (1949, dir. Alfred Hitchcock) US Image DVD

US Image DVD

Restored transfer

  • US: Kino BD and DVD (2018) – optional English subs
  • France: L’atelier d’images BD and DVD (2019) – optional French subs
  • Sweden: Studio S DVD (2020) – optional Swedish subs
  • Brazil: Versátil 3-DVD/7-film O Cinema de Hitchcock Vol. 2 (2019, alt) – optional Portuguese subs

Though it’s of much lesser quality than the official DVDs, especially the US Image, the difference between this original unrestored trailer and the new one below is striking:

AH/IB 48clip | Finale | revoir | TCM intros

First off, at least one of the German Kinowelt DVDs can be disregarded: though the label’s usually noted for consistently high quality, this occasion’s a rare anomaly. The initial standalone release has a blurry, badly zoomed-in transfer of an edited German theatrical print that’s missing a whole four minutes. Its optional German dub was only recorded for the shortened version, so the original English soundtrack was also edited to fit. This is wholly inexcusable and was indeed corrected for the box set disc which, using the same base transfer, interpolates the missing footage from an even lower quality source. As happened on the second pass, the norm in such cases is to use a full length transfer and revert to original audio with subtitles for the missing dub portions. This happened on more recent German TV screenings of Capricorn and with the superlative French Waltzes from Vienna DVDs. But in Capricorn’s case, the much-reissued French Universal DVD is also compromised: still slightly cropped all around, the image is better than Kinowelt’s but leaves much room for improvement. Worst of all, and a deal breaker for most, it has forced French subtitles with the English audio track.

All’s not lost though: the US image DVD has very strong A/V and is region 0, so will play anywhere. But saving the best for last, the latest discs from the US, France and elsewhere feature a 2018 4K digital restoration that while not perfect is quite beautiful and likely as good as we’re ever going to get for this Technicolor feast. Screenshots:

Regarding extras, the Image and Studio S DVDs are barebones while the Kinowelt has the original trailer and shares a half-hour “Hitchcock par Chabrol” featurette with the Universal, which is repeated on the Kino. The latter adds an audio commentary and shares a 12-minute Hitchcock/Truffaut interview excerpt, and the original trailer above with the restored French  disc. Lastly, that also adds two French-language featurettes of five and nine minutes.

Credits | clip

Be aware that there are numerous bootlegs of everything on this page, especially from the US, Europe and East Asia. Those for Hitch’s Capricorn, as with his British films, outnumber the official releases. They include the US (Starry Night), UK (Orbit), China (Bo ying), Italy (Crin Ediciones, Sinister Film 2011, 2017, 2019), Germany (FNM, Schröder Media, WME/Delta + box 2016, 2016 #2, 2019), Korea (unknown, #2, #3) and Spain (Crin Ediciones, El Mundo, Memory Screen/LaCasa…, Sogemedia + box, Suevia/reissue + box, unknown). The latter country even has a ropey BD-R from pirates Vértice Cine.

Most unusually, kosher Australian label Madman Entertainment released a DVD in 2013 but as they unwittingly managed to ‘license’ the transfer from notorious French pirates Films sans Frontières, it’s technically a bootleg, albeit an unintended one. In fact, it actually has default but optional Korean subtitles, so it looks as though FSF simply sent Madman a copy ripped directly from a Korean bootleg! However it came about, it was quickly deleted and there’s little evidence of it online. I strongly suspect this was due to licensing issues; perhaps Madman found themselves the undeserving recipients of a cease and desist letter from actual owners CBS?

Soundtrack releases

British composer Richard Addinsell’s rousing score is one of the film’s highlights but unfortunately there have been no full re-recordings nor any releases with isolated music tracks. However, there are two specially adapted suites from 1993 and 1997.


Under Capricorn (1982)

Under Capricorn (1982) TV miniseries

Choices are understandably even fewer for this 3½ hour antipodean epic, but at least both NTSC and PAL-locked viewers are catered for between both sets of region 0 DVDS.

Helen de Guerry Simpson and her daughter Clemence, named after her sometime writing partner Clemence Dane, c.1925

Helen de Guerry Simpson and her daughter Clemence, named after her sometime writing partner Clemence Dane, c.1925


For more detailed specifications of official releases mentioned, check out the ever-useful DVDCompare. This article is regularly updated, so please leave a comment if you have any questions or suggestions.

4 Comments

  1. John Fowler
    August 06, 21:35 Reply
    https://www.blu-ray.com/news/?id=25166 claims that the new Blu-ray of Murder! will be the 2012 BFI restoration Mary will be "Up-res" whatever that is.
    • Brent Reid
      August 06, 23:54 Reply
      Murder! is sourced from the BFI, though not a full restoration: it's the silents that were restored in 2012. "Up res" means it will be from a standard definition master but encoded in HD. Murder! will look a bit better, while with Mary any improvement over the official DVDs will be marginal at best.
  2. Aaron
    January 09, 15:32 Reply
    "Kino’s press release promised the inclusion of a “Hitchcock: The Early Years documentary (52:22)” but it’s disappointingly absent." I was wondering if this might have been an odd renaming of the "Pure Cinema: The Birth Of Hitchcock Style" extra from the 2007 Lionsgate US box set, but after digging out my copy I found that it was a 15 minute featurette. That got me curious, and after some digging it appears that the 2007 Optimum UK box set had this documentary. From the 2008 Gary Couzens review on The Digital Fix: "This is a French-made film, directed by Noël Simsolo. Interviews and narration are in French (subtitled into English) though the film extracts themselves are in the original English. Interviewees include Claude Chabrol and Bernard Eisenschitz, plus audio recordings of Hitchcock himself being interviewed (via an interpreter) by François Truffaut. This documentary, presented in 4:3, is a thorough look at the films of Hitchcock up to 1934." https://www.thedigitalfix.com/film/dvd-video-review/the-early-hitchcock-collection-sound-films/
    • Brent Reid
      January 22, 15:30 Reply
      Cheers for pointing that out, Aaron. There are so many Hitch docs spread around my collection, I'd overlooked the possibility it might be another. I've amended the article, though note the doc only covers <em>certain</em> films up to 1934!

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