Blu-ray and DVD Region Codes and Video Standards

  • Many DVDs and Blu-rays are region-locked and cannot be played in other countries without region free audio/video equipment
  • Amazon is awash with one-star reviews from annoyed customers who didn’t check before buying and can’t play their imported discs
  • This simple guide will help you decide if you’ll be able to play a particular release without any problems

Note that in this article I’ve bypassed a lot of techno-babble in order to get my fundamental points across as simply as possible. Much more detailed info can be found via the inline links or via a quick search.


Blu-ray and DVD region code symbols

Blu-ray and DVD region code symbols


The vast majority of DVDs worldwide are encoded in either the NTSC or PAL analogue TV system. Chief NTSC territories are the US, Canada, countries along the western coast of South America, and parts of the Far East, including Japan. The PAL format is used in Europe, Australia and practically the rest of the world. Note: NTSC DVDs can be played in PAL countries but PAL DVDs are seldom playable in NTSC countries. For NTSC territories, as a rule of thumb if your player is 50Hz compliant (most major non-Sony brands except for their PS4 and 4K/UHD players) and your TV is 50Hz compatible or your player converts it and outputs a 60Hz signal, PAL content will play fine.

Also bear in mind that for technical reasons, video encoded in the PAL format plays back at 4% faster than film speed: basically 25 frames per second vs the 24fps of both sound film and NTSC video. This means that in the case of two DVDs containing exactly the same 100-minute film, an NTSC-encoded disc will have the same timing, while a PAL disc will have a runtime of 96 minutes.

PAL DVDs have a resolution of 720 × 576 pixels, while NTSC DVDs are 720 x 480 pixels. Although PAL has more resolution, neither is inherently superior. There are many variables to be taken into consideration when ascertaining picture quality between two differently encoded discs, such as the source master used, the quality of the encode itself, and so on.

In order for studios to control the release dates and distribution of DVD sales worldwide, different regions were devised. They’re enforced by locking or coding each disc and player to a specific region. There are seven main regions for commercial DVD:

  • Region 0/free – no coding or flags 1–6 set; NTSC region 0 DVDs are playable anywhere
  • Region 1 – US and Canada
  • Region 2 – Europe, Middle East, Japan, South Africa, British Overseas Territories and Dependencies
  • Region 3 – Southeast Asia and Hong Kong
  • Region 4 – South America, , Australia and New Zealand
  • Region 5 – South and Central Asia, Russia, Africa (except South Africa)
  • Region 6 – China

Many DVD players nowadays come multi-region-capable as standard. If not, most can easily be hacked to be so with no adverse effects whatsoever. In fact, all DVD players are effectively manufactured as multi-region; hacking them simply removes the factory-imposed restrictions. Just do a search for the make and model number of your player, along with the words “multi-region hack”, and take it from there…

DVD regions worldwide

DVD regions worldwide


Blu-ray Discs (BDs) do not use either PAL or NTSC coding but rather are in the 1080p (p: pixels, of vertical resolution) worldwide high definition standard. Be aware that there are a tiny minority encoded at 1080i50Hz – sometimes called “1080p 25fps” on the sleeve. They’re basically 1080p content at PAL framerates, and may not be viewable on TVs in NTSC countries (US, Canada, etc) without a framerate converter built into the player. They’ll either send out a signal your TV can’t display properly, or just default to a black screen.

Some BD players can be harmlessly modified to become region free too, though in this case it’s then usually necessary to enter a four digit code each time you want to change the region. This is not as annoying as you might think: it only takes seconds and the vast majority of BDs, as much as 70%, are actually region free anyway.

Note that if you live in a non-PAL country, even if you buy a region 0 foreign BD, any standard definition menu screens and extra features may still be in PAL and unviewable.

Another thing to bear in mind is the Blu-ray specification only allows for standard definition content to be encoded as interlaced (480i or 576i), not the generally superior progressive found on most DVDs. Essentially, any SD material will almost always look appreciably better on DVD, so hang onto your old discs for their superior quality extras!

There are four region codes for BD:

  • Region 0/free/ABC – no coding, playable anywhere. Note that any standard definition extras will still be in the NTSC or PAL DVD format
  • Region A – Alaska, Canada, North and South America, East and Southeast Asia, including Japan
  • Region B – Europe, Africa, Southwest Asia, Australia and New Zealand
  • Region C – Central and Southern Asia, including China, and Russia
Blu-ray regions worldwide

BD regions worldwide

Region C-only discs are quite rare and most in the West will never encounter one. Even in Russia and China, where they’re most prevalent, the majority of discs are region 0 or region B+C.

Incidentally, all 4K UHD discs are region free: a single master is created and other than local labels and packaging, is sold around the world. Studios finally abandoning region coding with the latest format is a victory for common sense. We live in a global marketplace and they’ve been fighting a losing battle for years. Imports tend to flow towards a vacuum anyway, so as long as licensed, official releases are crossing continents, everyone concerned still makes their money.

Multi-region players

As stated above, multi-region DVD players are fairly common and some even come region free as standard. with only a handful of exceptions, BD players always leave the factory region-locked as standard and need to be modified, either via a firmware or hardware update. Ensure that if you install any future firmware updates it won’t delete your multi-region firmware. Hardware modified players do not have the same problem. As so many BDs are region 0, even someone owning many foreign discs may never encounter playback problems. Therefore, check carefully when buying a second hand player, as many sellers mistakenly think theirs must be multi-region-capable and will advertise it as such.

A highly recommended US BD player that’s multi-region out of the box, with a simple switch via the menu, is the Seiki SR4KP1. A similar UK player, sadly long discontinued, is the Technika BRSS10. Beware of the Sony BDP-S6500, a 2015 4K upscaling model.  It has a detail-killing automatic filter that can’t be turned off for any displays with lower resolution than 4K. Likewise, avoid the Toshiba BDX1400: it has unresolved audio sync issues.

Recommended retailers:

Leave a comment if you know of any others. is the single best resource on the internet for checking region code status and general DVD/BD/4K UHD disc specs.


  1. LEBEL benoit
    February 28, 00:10 Reply
    thank you very much for the information , now i can free encoded region my home cinema and watch my favorite movies ! thanks to science and advanced technologies , and thank you very much to you for the post , it's help me very much to solved my problems i've searching for many several months ago ! thank you so much friends
    • Brent Reid
      March 02, 18:06 Reply
      You're welcome, Benoit – I hope you're enjoying your region-free cinema!
  2. Vipin PV
    August 19, 17:51 Reply
    thank you for this information...i need a help from you.For the submission in a film festival,They are asking about to submit the video in Bluray( region free PAL). what is this means?what kind of conversion is they are asking about?frame rate and all other details?I'm using premiere pro in windows.down below i'll copy & paste the rules about format to submit written on the site. ("" Entries received in sub-standard quality of 35mm Print/ DCP (Unencrypted, DCI Compliant – J2K, Interop or SMPTE DCP-Note: J2K, Interop DCP to be only in 24 fps)/ Bluray (region free PAL) or DV Cam."") the truth is ,i dont have any idea about these all formats rather than 35mm print,which i cant submit. if you dont mind, will you tell me about DV Cam mentioning above too? Is that's a easier way ?
    • Brent Reid
      October 28, 06:06 Reply
      Your multifaceted question is beyond the scope of this article and too lengthy answer in detail. Have you tried looking <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener nofollow">here</a>? ;o)
  3. Phil
    December 26, 09:37 Reply
    Hi I just had an email from a client which I did her wedding video in England and it was edited in final cut Pro x and put on Blu Ray discs. She has emailed me from the USA to say the audio dose not seem to be aligned with the picture would this be what you said about the frame rate being different to England's system?
    • Brent Reid
      January 10, 15:21 Reply
      Hi Phil, If the footage was shot and edited in 1080p, there shouldn't be a problem. If you did either in 1080i, then that's possibly to blame. Alternatively, it could be her playback equipment. For a more detailed diagnosis, I suggest you refer to one of the many specialist forums dealing with filming and photography.

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